Kontribusi Sumber Aliran pada Pembentukan Air Limpasan dari Lelehan dan Hujan Salju di Cekungan Hulu Kawakami, Jepang Tengah

Kasdi Subagyono

Abstract


ABSTRAK Penetapan sumber air yang berkontribusi dalam proses air larian sangat penting untuk mengkarakterisasi proses hidrologi di daerah beriklim sedang. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap pelelehan salju tanggal 28 Maret 2001 dan hujan pada salju tanggal 29 Maret 2001 di Kebun Penelitian Kawakami, Provinsi Nagano, Jepang bagian Tengah. Pengukuran parameter hidrometrik dan hidrokimia serta Analisis Percampuran Sumber Air (EMMA) menggunakan Ca2+ dan SO42-dilaksanakan untuk menentukan sifat dinamis dari jalur aliran air dan untuk menganalisis sumber air yang berkontribusi terhadap proses larian. Tiga sumber air yang meliputi air bumi dangkal di zona Riparian, air tanah di zona pelerengan, dan air bumi dalam di zona Riparian teridentifikasi sebagai sumber air utama dalam menentukan proses larian di DAS hulu berhutan wilayah Kawakami, masing-masing 55%, 23% dan 22% serta 73%, 12%, dan 15%. Analisis hidrometrik menunjukkan bahwa air larian bawah permukaan selama kejadian pelelehan salju dan hujan pada salju didominasi oleh aliran air bawah permukaan khususnya pada zona Riparian. Hal ini merupakan alasan mengapa air bumi dangkal di zona Riparian memiliki kontribusi terbesar pada kejadian larian. Puncak larian pada 28 Maret 2001 diidentifikasi saat pelelehan salju terjadi pada pukul 14.00 yang berkorelasi dengan suhu tertinggi. Sementara itu puncak larian pada kejadian hujan pada salju terjadi pukul 16.00 dimana jumlah hujan merupakan faktor penentu kejadian larian tersebut.

Keywords


sumber air, analisis percampuran sumber air (EMMA), air larian, pelelehan salju, hujan pada salju, DAS hulu berhutan.

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14203/risetgeotam2013.v23.65

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