PENCEMARAN LIMBAH DOMESTIK DAN PERTANIAN TERHADAP AIRTANAH BEBAS DI KABUPATEN BANDUNG

Anna Fadliah Rusydi, Wilda Naily, Hilda Lestiana

Abstract


Airtanah bebas merupakan salah satu sumber air bersih bagi penduduk di Kabupaten Bandung bagian selatan. Pemanfaatannya dilakukan dengan cara membuat sumur gali maupun sumur pantek. Lokasi sumur-sumur tersebut berdekatan dengan sumber pencemar domestik dan pertanian sehingga rentan terkontaminasi. Pencemar yang dapat timbul pada air sumur akibat limbah domestik adalah solid, ammonium, dan bakteri coliform. Sementara, pencemar nitrat umumnya bersumber dari kegiatan pertanian. Untuk mengetahui pencemaran airtanah di lokasi penelitian, dilakukan analisis kimia air dan kandungan bakteri coliform, pada 21 conto air dari sumur gali di Kabupaten Bandung bagian selatan. Pemilihan lokasi berdasarkan pada hasil pemantauan kepadatan pemukiman menggunakan citra satelit pada aplikasi Google Earth, kemudian selanjutnya disesuaikan dengan kondisi lapangan di wilayah penelitian. Hasil analisis menunjukkan telah terjadinya pencemaran solid, nitrat, ammonium, dan coliform di beberapa titik. Hasil pemantauan lapangan memperkirakan nitrat berasal dari kegiatan pertanian, sedangkan solid, ammonium, dan coliform berasal dari limbah domestik. Pergerakan pencemar sampai ke airtanah ini didukung oleh pola aliran airtanah di lokasi tersebut.


Unconfined groundwater is the source of clean water to residents in the southern part of Bandung Regency. The need of water is fulfilled through shallow drilling of wells and panteks. The locations of the wells are close to domestic and agricultural pollution sources, so they are vulnerable to get contaminated. Pollutants that may arise in wells water due to domestic waste are solid, ammonium, and coliform bacteria. While, nitrate are generally derived from agricultural activities. To determine the contamination of groundwater at the study area, chemical analysis and coliform bacteria were conducted from 21 wells in southern part of Bandung Regency. The dug well locations were chosen based on the results of monitoring the residential density based on satellite images from the Google Earth application and adjusted to the field conditions in area of research. The result of analysis showed that contamination of solid, nitrate, ammonium, and coliform had occurred at some points. Result of field monitoring estimated that nitrate had derived from agricultural activities, while solid, ammonium, and coliform came from domestic waste. The movement of contaminants to groundwater was supported by the groundwaterflow pattern at the location.


Keywords


Southern part of Bandung Regency, unconfined groundwater, pH, solid, nitrate, ammonium, coliform

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14203/risetgeotam2015.v25.201

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