TEKNOLOGI PEMBUATAN SPIEGEL PIG IRON MENGGUNAKAN HOT BLAST CUPOLA FURNACE

Fajar Nurjaman

Abstract


ABSTRAK Spiegel pig iron merupakan besi kasar (pig iron) mengandung 10-20% Mangan (Mn), yang dapat diperoleh dengan cara melebur bahan baku, berupa bijih mangan, reduktor dan flux. Spiegel pig iron dapat digunakan sebagai bahan paduan pada material baja, seperti plain steel carbon, low alloy steel, dan manganese steel. Dalam penelitian ini akan dipelajari proses pembuatan spiegel pig iron menggunakan tungku hot blast cupola. Spiegel pig iron terbuat dari pellet komposit, yang terdiri dari; bijih mangan kadar rendah (85,5%), batubara (12,5%) dan bentonit (2%). Pelet komposit tersebut dilebur ke dalam hot blast cupola dengan menggunakan bahan bakar berupa kokas. Batu kapur (CaCO3) juga ditambahkan ke dalam tungku tersebut sebagai flux (material pembentuk slag). Serangkaian pengujian dilakukan terhadap produk logam spiegel pig iron dan slag yang dihasilkan, meliputi uji komposisi (menggunakan Optical Electron Spectroscopy/ OES dan Emission Dispersive X-Ray/EDAX) serta analisis struktur mikro (menggunakan mikroskop optik). Dari hasil penelitian ini diperoleh material spiegel pig iron dengan komposisi sebagai berikut: 3,67 C - 1,92 Si - 21,26 Mn. Struktur mikro terdiri dari karbida (Fe,Mn)3C dalam matriks pearlit. Slag memiliki komposisi 20,1 Mn - 1,73 Fe - 52,19 SiO2 - 8 CaO, dengan nilai basisitas 0,2. Struktur mikro slag berbentuk batang (rod) memanjang.

ABSTRACT Spiegel pig iron is a pig iron containing 10-20% Manganese (Mn). It is produced by smelting some raw materials, such as manganese ore, reductor, and flux. This material can be used as alloying element in some type of steels, such as plain steel carbon, low alloy steel, and manganese steel. The investigation of Spiegel pig iron making process in hot blast cupola has been conducted in this research. The spiegel pig iron was made from  pellets composite, consists of low grade manganese ore (85.5% wt); coal (12.5% wt); and bentonite (2% wt). The pellets composite were smelted with cokes, as a fuel in hot blast cupola. Limestone (CaCO3), as a flux (slag forming material), was also charged. Some of testing method was conducted to spiegel pig iron and slag, which includes; composition analysis (by using Optical Electron Spectroscopy/OES and Emission Dispersive X-Ray/EDAX); and micro structure analysis (by using optical microscopy). The spiegel pig iron containing 3.67 C - 1.92 Si - 21.26 Mn was resulted in this experiment. Its microstructure consists of carbide (Fe,Mn)3C inside pearlite matriks. The slag, containing 20.1 Mn - 1.73 Fe - 52.19 SiO2 - 8 CaO, had basicity 0.2. Its microstructure was in the form of a rod lamellae.


Keywords


Spiegel pig iron, bijih mangan, hot blast cupola furnace, pellet komposit, kokas

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14203/risetgeotam2015.v25.138

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